(12) In certain NENA languages new preterite regarding Group II verbs provides a vocalism (m)CoCiC- or (m)CuCiC- which has no precursor in the earlier languages. Noldeke (1868, 213) advised that modern function are pertaining to the Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he grabbed they out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Variations having o otherwise u was absent additional NENA as well as have in lots of of the NENA dialects: Hertevin, Sanandaj Religious, and you can Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) The overall establish was noted by the good prefix in most NENA except Hertevin and also in Mandaic plus in Turoyo. This new prefix requires Ã‘asualDates indir certainly one of three forms: (a) k- into the most of the verbs (state-of-the-art to help you c- in the Urmi, prolonged so you can ko- just before consonants when you look at the Turoyo, along with Zakho to get grams- just before a voiced phoneme); (b) k- but only to the a finite category of verbs (with many voicing absorption and sometimes almost every other transform too); or (c) i- into the all verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, personal communication); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we carry out say’, but doqIx-wa-le ‘we do observe it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he eats, tend to eat’, however, sate ‘he products, will, can get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin i-zare:la ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu i-napli baro ‘they pursue her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
Brand new k- prefix appears to be an emergency of prefix qa- off BT, as in new ubiquitous qatane ‘he teaches’. elizabeth ‘stands’. In some east dialects the newest shipment regarding k- was limited by a small group of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In others, it has got disappeared and you may already been changed of the a different sort of prefix we-, and therefore probably began since a lesser variety of i[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I goes toward this new synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla weil kIcca ‘I went along to give money to help you good girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) Brand new verb ‘give’ try yehav during the BT, and yav into the Syriac. It’s been remade in most NENA languages from the incorporation of your own following the l- ‘to’. Brand new essential, which had been hav in Syriac and you can BT, are hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in every NENA in which We have information, however for the Turoyo or Mandaic.
(15) Throughout NENA, the newest only one vital regarding qyama ‘get up’ has lost their last m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Religious qu (Panoussi, 110). New plural, however, keeps the fresh meters.
(16) In every NENA, the latest crucial off (i)zala ‘go’ is abnormal: Aradhin lorsque (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani si (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) Around the NENA, a number of terms and conditions are used just like the legs to have reflexive pronouns such ‘myself’. They are: ruh- in the Hertevin and in Turoyo, nos- regarding about three easternmost Jewish languages, and you may gyan- in the leftover dialects: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
This qa- is itself an effective contraction of qa?
(18) An alternate preposition definition ‘to’ or ‘for’ which will take the design ta, tla, otherwise tla is extensive, whether or not not common, in the NENA, but not included in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) concerned cook’ (Rubba, private interaction), Zakho cuxa los angeles psIxle darga facts ‘no you to open the doorway so you’re able to him’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 182).